E-MAPS Problem Space

For senior leaders, information technology (IT) is not about software, hardware, and other products but about facilitating mission accomplishment and enabling organizational efficiency and operational effectiveness.  E-MAPS provides services for this problem space.

(1) Senior leaders, (2) IT users who execute the tasks directed by senior leaders, and (3) developers of IT are mutually dependent.

•   Senior leaders succeed only if users of IT accomplish their assigned tasks.
•    Users cannot succeed unless the developers provide good IT.
•   Developers cannot succeed unless they get (1) good requirements from the users and senior leaders and (2) can verify their work with users and senior leaders as the IT is developed.
•   Users need documents and instruction on how the IT works and how to use the IT to accomplish standard tasks.

The diagram above represents the reality that the challenge is not to build or buy IT in isolation but to bridge the gaps between senior leaders, users, and developers so that the right IT is developed with the right capabilities and then applied effectively, in part because of good references and instruction.  E-MAPS services facilitate closing the gaps between senior leaders, users, and developers.

Information-Based Interoperability

Interoperability is organizations working together towards common ends (i.e., unity of effort).  Interoperability in the sense of communicating data and information machine-to-machine is important, but the value of such sharing is determined by what the users of the IT accomplish using the data and information shared machine-to-machine.
Information-Based Interoperability

Efficiency and Effectiveness

Senior leaders fund IT to advance mission accomplishment and improve their enterprises’ efficiency and effectiveness.  Gaps between domains, organizations, and IT systems limit efficiency and effectiveness.  Often, these gaps deprive senior leaders of the information they need for good decisions that lead to efficiency and effectiveness.  Efficiency and effectiveness therefore requires closing gaps between domains, organizations, and IT systems with communities of interest (COI), standardized vocabularies, doctrinal publications, and ontologies.

User Education

Data, information, and IT require user education.  We accept the need to educate users of weapons, automobiles and airplanes because of the needless and accidental damage inflicted by untrained users of these tools.  The accidental and tragic 1999 bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade is an example of very serious damage inflicted because of data analyzed and produced by an untrained individual.  Today, probably as a result of the bombing, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction 3505.01A, “Target Coordinate Mensuration Certification and Program Accreditation” requires individuals who produce target data by mensuration to be well trained and certified.  While such warfighting training is critical, it is impractical to require the same high level of training for all producers of data and information and for developers of sensors and other IT tools that produce data automatically. But it is as important to provide an appropriate level of training on the production of data and information as it is to provide training on the basics of cyber security.  For over 15 years, E-MAPS has been identifying and documenting the basics of data and information production.


Ontology is the science of representing reality consistently across domains, organizations, and IT systems.  Everyone performs ontology as they make sense of their circumstances and plan their future actions.  The concepts and methods of ontology are to the development and use of IT as weather is to development and use of aircraft and ships.  Yet, while there are first-rate, readily available references for pilots and seaman on weather, easy-to-access and easy-to-use references on ontology are not available to IT developers and users.  E-MAPS and its partners provide such references and instruction.
Basic Value of Ontology (Ontology for the Above Average Manager) 
•    Warfighters, Ontology, and Stovepiped Data, Information, and Information Technology) 

Big Data

The term Big Data represents the reality that advances in (1) sensors and other computer-based data-generating tools and (2) computer networks force far more data on users of IT than they can comprehend or even sort out without using IT tools.  Big Data conversations and tools tend to focus on manipulating semi-structured or unstructured data.  Manipulation is important, but it is more important to start by identifying the information problem to be solved and the ontology (i.e., representation of reality) that describes a problem’s domain.  E-MAPS and its partners provide support in representing domains.
Enabling Big Data Solutions